Write in sentences. a phrase should have an interest and a predicate.

You may lose control of the syntax and end up with a sentence fragment if you string together a lot of words. Remember that the next isn’t phrase:

“whilst in Western Europe railroad building proceeded quickly into the century that is nineteenth as well as in Russia there was clearly less progress.”

right right Here you’ve got a long substance introductory clause followed closely by no topic with no verb, and so you’ve got a fragment. You could have noticed exceptions to your no-fragments guideline. Skilful authors do often intentionally make use of a fragment to quickly attain a particular impact. Keep the rule-breaking towards the professionals.

Confusion of restrictive and clauses that are nonrestrictive.

Examine these two variations of this same phrase:

1. “World War we, which raged from 1914-1918, killed millions of Europeans.” 2. “World War I that raged from 1914-1918 killed millions of Europeans.”

The sentence that is first a nonrestrictive general clause; the times are included very nearly as parenthetical information. But one thing appears amiss with all the sentence that is second. It’s a restrictive clause that is relative limits the niche (World War We) to your World War We fought between 1914 and 1918, custom writing hence implying that there have been other wars called World War I, and therefore we have to differentiate included in this. Both sentences are grammatically proper, however the author of the sentence that is second silly. Note carefully the difference between that (for usage in restrictive clauses, without any comma) and which (to be used in nonrestrictive clauses, by having a comma).

Confusion about who’s doing just just what.

Remember—history is approximately what folks do, so that you should be vigilant about agency. Proofread your sentences very very carefully, asking yourself, “Have I stated just who has been doing or thinking exactly just what, or have we unintentionally attributed an action or belief into the incorrect individual or team?” Unfortuitously, there are numerous approaches to make a mistake right here, but defective punctuation has become the typical. Here’s a phrase about Frantz Fanon, the great critic of European imperialism. Concentrate on the punctuation and its own influence on agency: “Instead of a hierarchy centered on course, Fanon shows the imperialists begin a hierarchy centered on battle.” As punctuated, the phrase states one thing absurd: that Fanon is advising the imperialists in regards to the appropriate variety of hierarchy to determine in the colonies. Certainly, the journalist designed to state that, inside the analysis of imperialism, Fanon distinguishes between two types of hierarchy. A comma after suggests fixes the instant issue. Now glance at the revised phrase. It nevertheless requires work. Better diction and syntax would hone it. Fanon will not recommend (with connotations of both advocating and hinting); he states outright. What’s more, the contrast associated with two forms of hierarchy gets blurred by way too many words that are intervening. The point that is key of phrase is, in place, “instead of the, we’ve B.” Clarity demands that B follow a because closely as you are able to, and that the 2 elements be grammatically parallel. But between your elements a plus B, the writer inserts Fanon (a appropriate noun), indicates (a verb), imperialists (a noun), and establish (a verb). Take to the phrase this real method: “Fanon claims that the imperialists set up a hierarchy according to competition in place of course.” Now the agency is obvious: we realize exactly exactly what Fanon does, and now we understand what the imperialists do. Observe that mistakes and infelicities have means of clustering. If you learn one issue in a sentence, seek out others.

Confusion concerning the things of prepositions.

Here’s a different one of the problems that are common will not have the attention it merits. Discipline your phrases that are prepositional be sure you understand where they end. Spot the mess in this sentence: “Hitler accused Jewish folks of participating in incest and saying that Vienna had been the ‘personification of incest.’” Your reader believes that both engaging and stating are things associated with preposition of. Yet the journalist intends just the very first to function as item regarding the preposition. Hitler is accusing the Jews of engaging, yet not of saying; he could be usually the one doing the stating. Rewrite as “Hitler accused the Jews of incest; he reported that Vienna ended up being the ‘personification of incest.’” Observe that the wordiness of this original encouraged the mess that is syntactical. Simplify. It can’t be stated times that are too many Always spend attention to who’s doing just just what in your sentences.

Misuse regarding the comparative.

There are 2 problems that are common. The very first may be called the “floating comparative.” You employ the relative, but you don’t state what you are actually comparing. (“Lincoln was more upset because of the dissolution of this union.”) More upset than with what? More upset than whom? One other issue, which will be more prevalent and takes forms that are many could be the unintended (and quite often comical) contrast of unlike elements.

Evaluate these tries to compare President Clinton to President George H. W. Bush. Usually the difficulty begins by having a possessive:

“President Clinton’s intimate appetite was more voracious than President Bush.”

You mean to compare appetites, you’ve forgotten regarding the possessive, which means you absurdly compare an appetite to a guy. Rewrite as “more voracious than President Bush’s.”

A variation of the issue is the comparison that is unintended through the omission of the verb:

“President Clinton liked females a lot more than President Bush.”

Re-write as “more than did President Bush.”

A misplaced modifier might also cause contrast trouble: “Unlike the Bush management, intimate scandal almost destroyed the Clinton administration.” Rewrite as “Unlike the Bush management, the Clinton management ended up being almost destroyed by intimate scandal.” Here the passive vocals is much better than the misplaced modifier, you could rewrite as “The Bush management was indeed without any intimate scandal, which almost destroyed the Clinton management.”

Misuse of apostrophe.

Get control of your apostrophes. Make use of the apostrophe to create single or plural possessives (Washington’s soldiers; the colonies’ soldiers) or to create contractions (don’t; it is). Don’t use the apostrophe to create plurals. (“The communists not communists’ defeated the nationalists not nationalists’ in Asia.”)

Comma after though.

This can be a brand new mistake, probably a carryover through the typical conversational practice of pausing dramatically after although. (“Although, coffee usage rose in eighteenth-century Europe, tea stayed much more popular.”) Delete the comma after although. Remember that though is certainly not a synonym when it comes to expressed term however, and that means you cannot re re re solve the situation when you look at the sentence by putting a period of time after European countries. A clause you start with although cannot stand alone being a phrase.

Comma between verb and subject.

This will be a strange error that is new. (“Hitler and Stalin, consented to a pact in 1939.” august) Delete the comma after Stalin.

Finally, two tips: if the word-processing system underlines something and shows modifications, be mindful. Regarding grammar and syntax, your pc is a moron. Not merely does it are not able to recognize some errors that are gross moreover it falsely identifies some proper passages as mistakes. Try not to cede control of your writing decisions to your pc. Result in the recommended modifications just that they are correct if you are positive.

If you’re having problems along with your writing, try simplifying. Write sentences that are short read them aloud to try for quality. Focus on the topic and abide by it quickly with a verb that is active. Limit the number of general clauses, participial expressions, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional expressions. You shall win no rewards for eloquence, but at the least you’ll be clear. Include complexity only once you have got discovered to undertake it.

Word and Phrase Use Problems

An historical/an historian.

The consonant “H” is maybe perhaps not quiet in historical and historian, so that the proper type of the indefinite article is “A.”

Steer clear of the solecism that is common of feel as being a synonym for think, think, state, state, assert, contend, argue, conclude, or compose. (“Marx felt that the bourgeoisie exploited the proletariat.” “Emmeline Pankhurst felt that Uk ladies should certainly vote.”) Making use of feel in these sentences demeans the agents by suggesting sentiment that is undisciplined than very very carefully developed conviction. Pay attention to what your actors that are historical and did; keep their feelings to speculative chapters of the biographies. In terms of your feelings that are own have them from your documents. (“I believe that Lincoln should have freed the slaves earlier.”) Your teacher will be pleased that the material engages both your mind as well as your heart, your emotions may not be graded. Then explain, giving cogent historical reasons if you believe that Lincoln should have acted earlier.